Rare Pediatrics News

Erysipelas

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Ameloblastic carcinoma

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C41.1

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 314422 Definition A rare odontogenic tumor characterized by aggressive clinical course and local destruction, occurring in mandible more often than in maxilla. The most common symptom is a rapidly progressing painful swelling, but it may…

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Paramyotonia congenita

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G71.1

Paramyotonia congenita is an inherited condition that affects muscles used for movement (skeletal muscles), mainly in the face, neck, arms, and hands. Symptoms begin in infancy or early childhood and include episodes of sustained muscle tensing (myotonia) that prevent muscles from relaxing normally and lead to muscle weakness. Symptoms in paramyotonia congenita worsen during exposure…

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Glycogen storage disease type 4

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E74.0

Glycogen storage disease type 4 (GSD 4) is part of a group of disorders which lead to abnormal accumulation of glycogen (a storage form of glucose) in various parts of the body. Symptoms of GSD 4 usually begin in infancy and typically include failure to thrive; enlarged liver and spleen (hepatosplenomegaly); and in many cases, progressive liver cirrhosis and liver…

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Faciomandibular myoclonus, nocturnal

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Androgenetic alopecia

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Androgenetic alopecia is a common form of hair loss in both men and women. In men, hair is usually lost in a well-defined pattern, beginning above both temples and is usually referred to as male-pattern baldness. Over time, the hairline recedes to form a characteristic ‘M’ shape. Hair also thins near the top of the…

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Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis

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D76.1

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a condition in which the body makes too many activated immune cells (macrophages and lymphocytes).[1] People with HLH usually develop symptoms within the first months or years of life. Symptoms may include fever, enlarged liver or spleen, cytopenia (decreased number of blood cells), and neurological abnormalities.[2][3] HLH may be inherited in…

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Angiosarcoma of the breast

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Marcus Gunn phenomenon

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Q07.8

Marcus Gunn phenomenon is a rare condition characterized by movement of the upper eyelid in a rapid rising motion (a “wink”) each time the jaw moves.[1] The wink phenomenon may be elicited by opening the mouth, thrusting the jaw to the side, jaw protrusion, chewing, smiling, or sucking.[2] It is usually present at birth and…

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Anonychia congenita

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 79143 Definition Isolated congenital anonychia is characterized by nail abnormalities ranging from onychodystrophy (dystrophic nails) to anonychia (absence of nails). Onychodystrophy-anonychia has been described in at least four generations of a family with male-to-male transmission,…

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Progressive myoclonic epilepsy

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Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) refers to a group of inherited conditions involving the central nervous system and representing more than a dozen different diseases. These diseases share certain features, including a worsening of symptoms over time and the presence of both muscle contractions (myoclonus) and seizures (epilepsy). PME is different from myoclonic epilepsy.[1] Other features include dementia, dystonia, and trouble…

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Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 206569 Definition Necrotizing autoimmune myopathy (NAM) is a rare form of idiopathic inflammatory myopathy characterized clinically by acute or subacute proximal muscle weakness, and histopathologically by myocyte necrosis and regeneration without significant inflammation. Epidemiology The…

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Wolman disease

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E75.5

Wolman disease is a congenital disease characterized by an impaired metabolism of the fats (lipids). It is the most severe type of lysosomal acid lipase deficiency.[1] The lysomal acid lipase deficiency causes a buildup of lipids (fats) in body organs and calcium deposits in the adrenal glands. Common symptoms in infants include enlarged liver and…

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Factor V Leiden thrombophilia

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Factor V Leiden thrombophilia is a genetic disorder that makes it more likely for you to develop a blood clot sometime during your life. Still, it is estimated that 95% of people with factor V Leiden never develop a clot. When a clot does form, the clot most often occurs in your leg (deep venous…

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Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 3

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E31.0

Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome (APS) type 3 is an autoimmune condition that affects the body’s endocrine glands. The syndrome, which typically affects women during middle age, results from failure of the glands to produce their hormones. This condition is characterized by autoimmune thyroiditis along with another organ-specific autoimmune disease.[1][2][3] The other autoimmune diseases may include diabetes mellitus, pernicious anemia, vitiligo, alopecia,…

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Peters anomaly

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Q13.4

Peters anomaly is a disorder of the eye which involves thinning and clouding of the cornea and attachment of the iris to the cornea, which causes blurred vision. It may also be associated with clouding of the lens of the eye (cataracts) or other lens abnormalities.[1] The cause of Peters anomaly is unknown; it may…

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Gingival fibromatosis, 3

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Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2

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E80.5

Crigler-Najjar syndrome type 2 (CN-2) is a rare disorder that causes elevated levels of bilirubin in the blood (hyperbilirubinemia). Bilirubin normally is made by the body when old red blood cells are broken down. However, people with CN-2 develop hyperbilirubinemia even when red blood cells are not excessively broken down, because they have too little of a…

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Weissenbacher-Zweymuller syndrome

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Focal task-specific dystonia

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Focal task-specific dystonia (FTSD) is a movement disorder that is localized to a specific part of the body. The dystonias are a group of movement problems characterized by involuntary, sustained muscle contractions, tremors, and other uncontrolled movements. FTSD interferes with the performance of particular tasks, such as writing, playing a musical instrument, or participating in a…

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Gordon syndrome

Unknown
Q68.8

Gordon Syndrome is a rare, inherited disorder that affects movement in the joints of the upper and lower limbs, also known as distal arthrogryposis. People with this disorder can be born with several fingers fixed in a flexed position (camptodactyly), clubfoot, and an opening in the roof of the mouth (cleft palate). Their joints are…

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Plagiocephaly

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Free sialic acid storage disease

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E77.8

Free sialic acid storage diseases are inherited conditions that lead to progressive neurological damage. There are three forms of free sialic acid storage diseases; an infantile form, an intermediate severe form and Salla disease. The infantile form is the most severe, with symptoms appearing before birth or soon after. Salla disease is the least severe…

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Atrial septal defect coronary sinus

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Q21.1

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Pruritic urticarial papules plaques of pregnancy

Unknown
O26.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 64745 Definition A rare skin disease characterized by urticarial papules and plaques with severe pruritus mainly on the abdomen, buttocks, and proximal thighs. The condition usually develops during the third trimester of the first pregnancy,…

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Glutaric acidemia type I

Unknown
E72.3

Glutaric acidemia type I (GA1) is a genetic metabolic disorder. People with GA1 don’t make enough of one of the enzymes needed to break down certain amino acids found in the proteins we eat. Without enough of the enzyme, the breakdown products of these amino acids build up in tissues of the body. The buildup of these…

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Richards-Rundle syndrome

Unknown
G60.2

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1399 Definition Richards-Rundle syndrome is an extremely rare neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive spinocerebellar ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism associated with additional neurological manifestations (such as peripheral muscle wasting, nystagmus, intellectual disability or…

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Spastic paraplegia with precocious puberty

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Gas bloat syndrome

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Atypical Werner syndrome

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E34.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 79474 Definition An heterogeneous group of cases that are clinically diagnosed as Werner syndrome (WS) but do not carry WRN gene mutations. Similar to classical WS caused by WRN mutations, patients generally exhibit an aged…

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Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia

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Q78.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 85174 Definition Pseudodiastrophic dysplasia is characterized by rhizomelic shortening of the limbs and severe clubfoot deformity, in association with elbow and proximal interphalangeal joint dislocations, platyspondyly, and scoliosis. It has been described in about 10…

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Genetic reflex epilepsy

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Autosomal dominant Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2 with giant axons

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G60.0

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 401964 Definition A rare subtype of axonal hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy (principally of peroneal muscles) associated with distal sensory loss (tactile, vibration), pes cavus present since infancy…

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Pyomyositis

Unknown
M60.0

Pyomyositis is rare bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle (the muscles used for movement). Signs and symptoms may include pain and tenderness of the affected muscle, fever, and abscess formation. If left untreated, the abscess may extend into the bone and joint or blood poisoning may occur. Approximately 90% of cases are caused by the…

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Glaucoma, hereditary adult type 1A

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Renal dysplasia-limb defects syndrome

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Q87.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 3404 Definition Ulbright-Hodes syndrome is characterised by renal dysplasia, growth retardation, phocomelia or mesomelia, radiohumeral fusion, rib abnormalities, anomalies of the external genitalia and a potter-like facies. The syndrome has been described in three infants…

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Glutamate decarboxylase deficiency

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Pachygyria, frontotemporal

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Syndactyly type 3

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Syndactyly type 3 (SD3) is a limb abnormality present at birth that is characterized by complete fusion of the 4th and 5th fingers on both hands. In most cases only the soft tissue is fused, but in some cases the bones of the fingers (distal phalanges) are fused. There is evidence that SD3 is caused…

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Polyembryoma

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Polyembryoma is a type of tumor that develops from the cells of the gonads (testes in men or ovaries in women). Such tumors are called germ cell tumors. Polyembryomas have a distinctive look because they are composed of many parts that are shaped like embryos, one of the earliest stages of a developing human during pregnancy.[1] Symptoms of a…

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Troyer syndrome

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G11.4

Troyer syndrome is a neurological disorder and one of the many types of hereditary spastic paraplegia.[1][2] Signs and symptoms typically begin in early childhood and may include progressive muscle weakness and stiffness (spasticity) in the legs; muscle wasting in the hands and feet; paraplegia; leg contractures; developmental delays; speech difficulty; mood swings; and short stature.[2][3][1]…

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Sarcoma botryoides

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Rowley-Rosenberg syndrome

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Baby rattle pelvic dysplasia

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X-linked dominant scapuloperoneal myopathy

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X-linked scapuloperoneal myopathy is an inherited muscular dystrophy characterized by weakness and wasting of the muscles in the lower legs and the area of the shoulder blades. In some individuals, facial muscles may also be affected. While the progression varies from case to case, it tends to be relatively slow.[1][2] Some cases of scapuloperoneal myopathy…

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Hepatoblastoma

Unknown
C22.2

Hepatoblastoma is a rare malignant (cancerous) tumor of the liver that usually occurs in the first 3 years of life. In early stages of the condition, there may be no concerning signs or symptoms. As the tumor gets larger, affected children may experience a painful, abdominal lump; swelling of the abdomen; unexplained weight loss; loss…

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Bardet-Biedl syndrome 5

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Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, Aggrecan type

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Q77.7

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 171866 Definition Spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, aggrecan type is a new form of skeletal dysplasia characterized by severe short stature, facial dysmorphism and characteristic radiographic findings. Epidemiology To date, three cases have been described, all originating from…

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Pyropoikilocytosis hereditary

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Primary basilar impression

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Q75.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2285 Definition Primary basilar impression (PBI) is a very rare skeletal developmental defect characterized by congenital upward translocation of the upper cervical spine and clivus into the foramen magnum. PBI can be asymptomatic or associated…

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Siderosis

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Red cell phospholipid defect with hemolysis

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Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome

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Beare-Stevenson cutis gyrata syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by skin abnormalities (cutis gyrata, which causes a furrowed and wrinkled appearance, and acanthosis nigricans) and the premature fusion of certain bones of the skull (craniosynostosis). This early fusion prevents the skull from growing normally and affects the shape of the head and face. Beare-Stevenson cutis…

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Spastic paraplegia 12

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G11.4

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 100993 Definition A pure form of hereditary spastic paraplegia characterized by a childhoodto adulthood-onset of slowly progressive lower limb spasticity and hyperreflexia of lower extremities, extensor plantar reflexes, distal sensory impairment, variable urinary dysfunction and…

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Hodgkin lymphoma

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 98293 Definition Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is a heterogeneous group of malignant lymphoid neoplasms of Bcell origin characterized histologically by the presence of Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells in the vast majority of cases. Epidemiology HL…

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Epilepsy, benign occipital

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G40.0

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 25968 Definition Benign occipital epilepsy is a rare, genetic neurological disorder characterized by visual seizures and occipital epileptiform paroxysms reactive to ocular opening which present in infancy to mid-adolescence. Vomiting, tonic eye deviation and impairment…

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Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia type A4

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Q77.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 168555 Definition Spondylometaphyseal dysplasia, A4 type is a rare primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by disproportionate short stature, severe femoral neck deformity, marked metaphyseal abnormalities and platyspondyly consisting of ovoid vertebral bodies that have an…

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Trichinosis

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B75

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 863 Definition Trichinellosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by the consumption of raw or undercooked meat (pork and wild game) infected by nematodes of the genus Trichinella and that is characterized by an enteral…

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Symphalangism distal

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Hyperbilirubinemia type 2

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E80.6

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Kienbock’s disease

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M92.2 M93.1

Kienbock’s disease causes one of the bones in the wrist (lunate bone) to slowly break down due to low blood supply. This process is called osteonecrosis. Symptoms include pain, swelling, limited movement, and decreased grip strength. The symptoms usually start in adulthood, but can occur at any age. Kienbock’s disease usually slowly gets worse over time….

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Temple syndrome

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 254516 Definition Temple syndrome is a rare, genetic disease characterized by pre-and postnatal growth delay, feeding difficulties, muscular hypotonia, motor developmental delay (with or without mild intellectual disability) and mild facial dysmorphism, such as broad,…

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Hypertrichosis universalis

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Q84.2

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Maxillonasal dysplasia, Binder type

Unknown
Q75.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1248 Definition Binder syndrome is a rare developmental anomaly, affecting primarily the anterior part of the maxilla and nasal complex. Epidemiology Binder syndrome occurs in less than one birth in 10,000 but is probably underdiagnosed….

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TORCH syndrome

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Jorgenson Lenz syndrome

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Xanthinuria type 2

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E79.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 93602 Definition Type II xanthinuria, a type of classical xanthinuria (see this term), is a rare autosomal recessive disorder of purine metabolism (see this term) characterized by the deficiency of both xanthine dehydrogenase and aldehyde…

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Idiopathic alveolar hypoventilation syndrome

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Immunoglobulin G deficiency

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Immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiency is a condition that involves the immune system and is characterized by a shortage of type G antibodies. There are four different subclasses of IgG: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4. People with IgG deficiency may have a decreased amount of one or more of the IgG subclasses or a shortage of other types…

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Sugarman brachydactyly

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Winchester syndrome

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Infantile scoliosis

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Branchial arch defects

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Intellectual disability-dysmorphism-hypogonadism-diabetes mellitus syndrome

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Q87.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 3044 Definition A rare, genetic, syndromic intellectual disability disorder characterized by mild to moderate intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism (including a long face, deep-set eyes, narrow-based, broad nose with nostril colobomata, mandibular prognathism), hypergonadotrophic hypogonadism, eunuchoid…

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Bronchiectasis oligospermia

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3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency

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E71.1

3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (3-MCC deficiency) is an inherited condition in which the body is unable to breakdown the amino acid, leucine (a building block of protein). Some children with 3-MCC deficiency will begin developing signs and symptoms during infancy or early childhood; however, more recent studies suggest that many affected babies identified through newborn screening…

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Limb deficiencies distal with micrognathia

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Q92.3

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 1307 Definition The distal limb deficienciesmicrognathia syndrome is characterized by the combination of symmetric severe distal limb reduction deficiencies affecting all four limbs (oligodactyly), microretrognathia, and microstomia with or without cleft palate. Epidemiology It has…

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Rheumatoid factor-negative juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 85408 Definition Rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis is a term used to describe a group of poorly defined heterogenous conditions that incorporates forms of rheumatoid factor-negative polyarthritis and forms of oligoarticular arthritis that become extensive in less…

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La Crosse encephalitis

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La Crosse (LAC) encephalitis is a mosquito-borne virus that was first described in La Crosse, Wisconsin in 1963. Since then, it has been reported in several Midwestern and Mid-Atlantic states.[1] The LAC virus is one of many mosquito-transmitted viruses that can cause an inflammation of the brain (encephalitis). About 80-100 cases of this condition are…

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Keratosis palmoplantaris striata 3

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Candida glabrata

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Sacral meningocele conotruncal heart defects

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Q87.8

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DOLK-CDG (CDG-Im)

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E77.8

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 91131 Definition DK1-CDG is characterised by muscular hypotonia and ichthyosis. It has been described in four children from two consanguineous families. All the affected children died during early infancy, two from dilated cardiomyopathy. The syndrome…

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T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia

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Tcell large granular lymphocyte leukemia is a rare cancer of a type of white blood cells called lymphocytes. T-cell large granular lymphocyte leukemia causes a slow increase in white blood cells called T lymphocytes, or T cells, which originate in the lymph system and bone marrow and help to fight infection. This disease usually affects people in their…

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Cardioencephalomyopathy

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Legius syndrome

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Q85.0

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 137605 Definition Legius syndrome, also known as NF1-like syndrome, is a rare, genetic skin pigmentation disorder characterized by multiple café-au-lait macules with or without axillary or inguinal freckling. Epidemiology The prevalence of Legius syndrome is…

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Carpotarsal osteochondromatosis

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D16.9

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 2767 Definition Carpotarsal osteochondromatosis is a very rare primary bone dysplasia disorder characterized by abnormal bone proliferation and osteochondromas in the upper and lower limbs. Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.

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Levotransposition of the great arteries

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Wellesley Carmen French syndrome

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Q87.8

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Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects

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E88.8

Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects are a group of conditions caused by different enzymatic deficiencies. Lipoate is a cofactor essential for important reactions in humans involving several genes (LIPT1, LIAS, DLD) which codifiy different enzymes. Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in…

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Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome

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Q87.8

Cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome (CCMS) is a very rare condition characterized by severe micrognathia (abnormally small jaw), abnormalities of the roof of the mouth (palate), and rib defects. Other signs and symptoms may include intellectual disability and microcephaly (small head size). In some cases, the features cause respiratory problems in early infancy and can be life-threatening.[1][2] Most…

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Long QT syndrome 6

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Ependymoma

Unknown
D43.2

The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 251636 Definition Ependymoma is the most frequent intramedullary tumor in adults (but accounts for only 10-12% of pediatric central nervous system tumors), and can be benign or anaplastic. Ependymoma arise from the ependymal cells of…

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Lymphomatous thyroiditis

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Madras motor neuron disease

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The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Orpha Number: 137867 Definition Madras motor neuron disease (MMND) is characterized by weakness and atrophy of limbs, multiple lower cranial nerve palsies and sensorineural hearing loss. Epidemiology Less than 200 cases have be reported to date, predominantly…

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Hutterite cerebroosteonephrodysplasia syndrome

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Treacher Collins syndrome 3

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Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B

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G60.0

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2B (CMT2B) is an inherited peripheral neuropathy with onset in the second or third decade of life. Common signs and symptoms include severe loss of sensation in the feet, lower legs, hands, and forearms; reduced tendon reflexes in the ankles; weakness in the lower limbs; and the loss of muscle tissue (muscle…

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Medium-chain 3-ketoacyl-coa thiolase deficiency

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Medulloblastoma, childhood

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