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Disease Profile

Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

<1 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

VRCP autosomal dominant; Vitreoretinochoroidopathy dominant; ADVIRC


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Eye diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 3086

A rare, genetic, vitreous-retinal disease characterized by ocular developmental anomalies such as microcornea, a shallow anterior chamber, glaucoma and cataract. Abnormal chorioretinal pigmentation is present, usually lying between the vortex veins and the ora serrata for 360 degrees.

At least 3 pedigrees have been reported to have ADVIRC.

Clinical description
Age of onset is variable, but can occur in childhood. ADVIRC is associated with developmental ocular anomalies including microphthalmos/nanophthalmos, microcornea, hypermetropia/high myopia, shallow anterior chamber, angle closure glaucoma, iris dysgenesis, abnormal pupillary ruff, microspherophakia with mild lens opacities (congenital or early-onset posterior/subcapsular cataract), disc gliosis and optic nerve dysplasia. Some patients may experience vision loss. Color vision is generally normal. Discrete rotatory nystagmus may be present. Retinal edema due to vascular incompetence may also be observed. ADVIRC is characterized by a peripheral retinal circumferential hyperpigmented band, punctuate white retinal opacities, fibrillar condensation of the vitreous, vascular abnormalities and neovascularisation. There are no identifiable systemic or skeletal abnormalities.

ADVIRC is caused by mutations in BEST1 (11q12) (Val86Met, Val235Ala and Tyr236Cys), which encodes bestrophin-1 (expressed specifically in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)) forming a calcium activated chloride channel involved in regulation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. These mutations may alter normal splicing of BEST1 and result in in-frame alteration of bestrophin-1. However, functional consequences of such in-frame protein alterations remain undefined.

Diagnostic methods
Diagnosis of ADVIRC is based on low normal to non-recordable amplitudes of cones and rods on full-field electroretinogram (generalized rod and cone dysfunction), an abnormal electro-oculogram (EOG) (the light rise of EOG is decreased giving a reduced Arden ratio), and normal macular thickness on optical coherence tomography. Funduscopy typically reveals a concentric band of hyperpigmentation in the extreme periphery of one quadrant, with well-defined posterior demarcation, midperipheral chorioretinal atrophy and optic nerve dysplasia. Fundus autofluorescence imaging may show a normal autofluorescence pattern. Goldmann perimetry is often initially normal; however visual field tends to constrict mildly with age. Diagnosis is confirmed by genetic screening of BEST1.

Differential diagnosis
MRCS syndrome (see this term) is generally more severe than ADVIRC. However, both of these BEST1-related conditions show retinal pigmentary abnormalities, retinal dystrophy, microcornea, and early-onset cataract, conditions that overlap and likely form a continuum. Differential diagnosis also includes Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD), adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy and autosomal recessive bestrophinopathy (see these terms).

Genetic counseling
Transmission is autosomal dominant and genetic counseling is possible.

Management and treatment
Management is mainly symptomatic. When choroidal neovascularization occurs, treatment may require laser photocoagulation or intravitreal delivery of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents such as bevacizumab and ranibizumab. Cystoid macular edema can be treated with conventional carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) either systemically or topically. If presentation is complicated by glaucoma, conventional treatment may require topical agents to lower intraocular pressure, such as CAIs. Laser iridotomy may be advocated if angle closure glaucoma is a risk. Some cases may require additional surgical intervention.

Most patients retain a fairly good visual acuity throughout life, although visual acuity may decrease considerably due to macular edema, chorioretinal atrophy, or rarely, retinal detachment and vitreous hemorrhage.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Color blindness
Abnormally small eyeball
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Abnormality of chorioretinal pigmentation
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Color vision defect
Abnormal color vision
Abnormality of color vision

[ more ]

Cornea of eye less than 10mm in diameter
Night blindness
Poor night vision

[ more ]

Involuntary, rapid, rhythmic eye movements
Pigmentary retinopathy
Posterior staphyloma
Pulverulent cataract
Retinal arteriolar constriction
Retinal arteriolar occlusion
Blocked retinal artery
Retinal detachment
Detached retina
Retinal neovascularization
Squint eyes

[ more ]

Vitreous hemorrhage


Making a diagnosis for a genetic or rare disease can often be challenging. Healthcare professionals typically look at a person’s medical history, symptoms, physical exam, and laboratory test results in order to make a diagnosis. The following resources provide information relating to diagnosis and testing for this condition. If you have questions about getting a diagnosis, you should contact a healthcare professional.

Testing Resources

  • The Genetic Testing Registry (GTR) provides information about the genetic tests for this condition. The intended audience for the GTR is health care providers and researchers. Patients and consumers with specific questions about a genetic test should contact a health care provider or a genetics professional.

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

Where to Start

  • Genetics Home Reference (GHR) contains information on Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. This website is maintained by the National Library of Medicine.

In-Depth Information

  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Autosomal dominant vitreoretinochoroidopathy. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.