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Disease Profile

Baroreflex failure

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.


US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset

All ages





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.


Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable



Heart Diseases; RDCRN


Baroreflex failure is a rare disorder that causes fluctuations in blood pressure with episodes of severe hypertension (high blood pressure) and elevated heart rate in response to stress, exercise, and pain.[1][2] Individuals may also have hypotension (low blood pressure) with normal or reduced heart rate during periods of rest.[1][2] Symptoms of baroreflex failure may include headache, sweating, and a heart rate that does not respond to medications.[2] The onset of baroreflex failure may be very abrupt or more gradual.[1] In many cases, the cause of baroreflex failure is not known. However, baroreflex failure can result from surgery or radiation treatment for cancers of the neck, injury to the nerves involved in sensing blood pressure, or a degenerative neurologic disease.[1][2] Treatment usually involves medications to control blood pressure and heart rate along with stress reduction techniques.[2]


Support and advocacy groups can help you connect with other patients and families, and they can provide valuable services. Many develop patient-centered information and are the driving force behind research for better treatments and possible cures. They can direct you to research, resources, and services. Many organizations also have experts who serve as medical advisors or provide lists of doctors/clinics. Visit the group’s website or contact them to learn about the services they offer. Inclusion on this list is not an endorsement by GARD.

Organizations Supporting this Disease

    Learn more

    These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

    In-Depth Information

    • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Baroreflex failure. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.


      1. Heusser, Karsten, et al.. Hypertension Grand Rounds: Baroreflex Failure. American Heart Association. 2005; https://hyper.ahajournals.org/content/45/5/834.full. Accessed 6/12/2015.
      2. Autonomic Disorders Consortium. Baroreflex Failure. Rare Diseases Clinical Research Network (RDCRN). https://www.rarediseasesnetwork.org/ARDCRC/patients/learnmore/baroreflex/. Accessed 6/12/2015.