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Disease Profile

Mesomelic dysplasia Kantaputra type

Prevalence estimates on Rare Medical Network websites are calculated based on data available from numerous sources, including US and European government statistics, the NIH, Orphanet, and published epidemiologic studies. Rare disease population data is recognized to be highly variable, and based on a wide variety of source data and methodologies, so the prevalence data on this site should be assumed to be estimated and cannot be considered to be absolutely correct.

<1 / 1 000 000

US Estimated

Europe Estimated

Age of onset





Autosomal dominant A pathogenic variant in only one gene copy in each cell is sufficient to cause an autosomal dominant disease.


Autosomal recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of each gene of the chromosome are needed to cause an autosomal recessive disease and observe the mutant phenotype.


dominant X-linked dominant inheritance, sometimes referred to as X-linked dominance, is a mode of genetic inheritance by which a dominant gene is carried on the X chromosome.


recessive Pathogenic variants in both copies of a gene on the X chromosome cause an X-linked recessive disorder.


Mitochondrial or multigenic Mitochondrial genetic disorders can be caused by changes (mutations) in either the mitochondrial DNA or nuclear DNA that lead to dysfunction of the mitochondria and inadequate production of energy.

Multigenic or multifactor Inheritance involving many factors, of which at least one is genetic but none is of overwhelming importance, as in the causation of a disease by multiple genetic and environmental factors.


Not applicable


Other names (AKA)

MMDK; MDK; Mesomelic dysplasia with ankle carpal and tarsal synostosis;


Congenital and Genetic Diseases; Musculoskeletal Diseases


The following summary is from Orphanet, a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs.

Orpha Number: 1836

Mesomelic dysplasia Kantaputra type (MDK) is a rare skeletal disease characterized by symmetric shortening of the middle segments of limbs and short stature.

It has been described in five families.

Clinical description
In the upper limbs, the ulnae are very short, and the radii are bowed. The distal humerus has a dumbbell shape. The hands show progressive flexion contractures of the proximal interphalangeal joints. In the lower limbs, feet are fixed in plantar flexion so that the patients walk on their toetips. The prominent distal fibula on the ventral aspect is common and considered a hallmark. Fibula, talus and calcaneus are small and fibulo-calcaneal synostosis is a characteristic feature. Carpal and tarsal synostoses are observed in some individuals. All affected patients have normal craniofacial features and intelligence.

Using microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH), two microduplications have been identified on chromosome 2 (2q31.1-q31.2), separated by a segment of normal copy number. The more centromeric duplication encompasses the HOXD cluster and it is proposed that duplications cause dysregulation of HOXD gene expression.

Genetic counseling
In all families, the condition is transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait.

Visit the Orphanet disease page for more resources.


This table lists symptoms that people with this disease may have. For most diseases, symptoms will vary from person to person. People with the same disease may not have all the symptoms listed. This information comes from a database called the Human Phenotype Ontology (HPO) . The HPO collects information on symptoms that have been described in medical resources. The HPO is updated regularly. Use the HPO ID to access more in-depth information about a symptom.

Medical Terms Other Names
Learn More:
80%-99% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of fibula morphology
Abnormality of the calf bone
Abnormality of the ankles
Abnormality of the humerus
Camptodactyly of finger
Permanent flexion of the finger
Dumbbell-shaped humerus
Dumbbell-shaped long bone in upper arm
Disproportionately short middle portion of limb
Short stature
Decreased body height
Small stature

[ more ]

Tarsal synostosis
Fused ankle bones
30%-79% of people have these symptoms
Clinodactyly of the 5th finger
Permanent curving of the pinkie finger
Synostosis of carpal bones
Fusion of wrist bones
Ulnar deviation of finger
Finger bends toward pinky
5%-29% of people have these symptoms
Abnormality of the ribs
Rib abnormalities
Cubitus valgus
Outward turned elbows
Vertebral segmentation defect
Percent of people who have these symptoms is not available through HPO
Autosomal dominant inheritance
Carpal synostosis
Radial bowing
Bowing of outer large bone of the forearm

Learn more

These resources provide more information about this condition or associated symptoms. The in-depth resources contain medical and scientific language that may be hard to understand. You may want to review these resources with a medical professional.

In-Depth Information

  • The Monarch Initiative brings together data about this condition from humans and other species to help physicians and biomedical researchers. Monarch’s tools are designed to make it easier to compare the signs and symptoms (phenotypes) of different diseases and discover common features. This initiative is a collaboration between several academic institutions across the world and is funded by the National Institutes of Health. Visit the website to explore the biology of this condition.
  • Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders. Each entry has a summary of related medical articles. It is meant for health care professionals and researchers. OMIM is maintained by Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. 
  • Orphanet is a European reference portal for information on rare diseases and orphan drugs. Access to this database is free of charge.
  • PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Mesomelic dysplasia Kantaputra type. Click on the link to view a sample search on this topic.